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The hilly areas of the northeast and southeast are occupied by much smaller tribal groups, many of which have strongly resisted domination by the national government and the population pressure from Bangladeshis who move into and attempt to settle in their traditional areas.In 1998 an accord was reached between the armed tribal group Shanti Bahini and the government. Bangladesh is the most densely populated nonisland nation in the world.Girls between one and four years of age are almost twice as likely as boys to die.In the early 1980s the annual rate of population increase was above 2.5 percent, but in the late 1990s it decreased to 1.9 percent.The success of population control may be due to the demographic transition (decreasing birth and death rates), decreasing farm sizes, increasing urbanization, and national campaigns to control fertility (funded largely by other nations). The primary language is Bangla, called Bengali by most nonnatives, an Indo-European language spoken not just by Bangladeshis, but also by people who are culturally Bengali.This includes about 300 million people from Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Bihar, as well as Bengali speakers in other Indian states.The province of East Bengal was made part of Pakistan and was referred to as East Pakistan.West Pakistan was carved from the northwest provinces of the British Indian empire.
Annual population growth rate is at about 2 percent.
Infant mortality is approximately seventy-five per one thousand live births.
Life expectancy for both men and women is fifty-eight years, yet the sex ratios for cohorts above sixty years of age are skewed toward males.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts have extensive hardwood forests.
The vast river delta area is home to the dominant plains culture.
With approximately 125 million inhabitants living in an area of 55,813 square miles, there are about 2,240 persons per square mile.